Solar Charge Controller helps to prevent batteries from overcharging.The Charge Controller safeguards the batteries and maintain their lives.
So we go through one by one topic to make your understanding easy about the controllers and their types.
So let’s get started.
A charge controller or battery regulator controls the charging and voltage to the batteries. It prevents the batteries from overcharging and overvoltage so the battery’s life span increases. It also prevents from completely draining or deep discharging when there is a long blackout.
In a nutshell, it is the power manager of the battery bank.
What is Solar Controller?
The Solar Controller manages the power going into the battery bank from the solar power plant. It prevents the overcharging of batteries during the day time when sunlight is generating the electricity and also prevents the power from batteries to run backward to the solar panel during night and drain the batteries.
Batteries have specific voltage capacity(normal voltage). If the voltage from the solar panel is higher than the normal voltage of batteries, and it charges the batteries with higher voltage, then the batteries can be permanently damaged. So solar charge controllers also act as a life saver.
It is divided into two main categories based on the technologies – PWM and MPPT Solar Charge Controller
1. PWM Controller
A PWM Solar Charge Controller stands for “Pulse Width Modulation”. PWM controllers work by making the voltage power which comes from the solar panel to the capacity of the battery and then the voltage becomes appropriate to the normal battery capacity and it is going into the battery.
PWM controller provides a high input power factor. High input power factor means the ratio of the real power that is used to do work(power from the solar panel) and the apparent power that is supplied to the circuit (power reduced by the solar controller) is high when providing the input of power. It also provides quick response time and accuracy.
2. MPPT Controller
A MPPT Solar Charge Controller stands for “Maximum Power Point Tracking”. It is an algorithm integrated in the charge controller. It is used to draw out maximum available power from the solar panel.
MPPT acts as a DC-DC converter which takes the DC power from the solar panel and converts it into AC and then converts it back into DC voltage and current to match with the battery’s voltage. Examples of DC to DC converters are buck converter, boost converter etc.
MPPT is most useful during winter days when the solar panel works better than the summer days and MPPT can draw out maximum power and provide high output to the house. It is also useful in those days when the batteries are deeply discharged and MPPT can deliver the maximum charge to the battery.
Both controller use for the regulation of the batteries but with different technologies. So use the controller according to yoursolar sytem, battery cappacities etc.